Full Text Writing Rules


  • Submit your manuscript as MS Word file; maximum 10 pages, including figures, tables and references.
  • Use font Times New Roman 12, single spacing, A4 paper and 2.5 cm margins on all sides. Symbol font can be used for special characters.
  • Your manuscript must contain title, author(s) and affiliation(s).
  • Your paper should be within the range of pages given.


Manuscript heading

  • Title: bold, sentence case, 14 pt Times New Roman.
  • Authors: italic, all sentence case. Use initials for the first names of the authors.
  • Affiliations: italic, all sentence case; affiliations include the full address of all authors and including the e-mail address of the corresponding author.


Abstract and keywords

  • The abstract should be clear on itself and not containing more than 400 words.
  • Use 3-5 keywords (do not repeat any of the words of the title of the manuscript). Keywords should be low-case, separated by a comma.



  • Use a maximum of two heading levels:
  • Level 1: Boldface, sentence case.
  • Level 2: Italic, sentence case.
  • Italics should be used for Latin expressions, e.g. species names like Aspergillus and words like in vivo.
  • Commas are used for numbers greater than 1,000. Ordinal numbers less than 10 are preferably spelled out. Periods are used for decimals. Use a 0 before the decimal point for numbers below 1 (e.g. 0.005).
  • Authors should use SI units. Units should be given as kg/ha rather than kg ha-1.
  • Abbreviations should be used for all units and numerical values should be given in figures except where the number begins a sentence. Other abbreviations should be given in full where first mentioned in the main text and are followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.
  • Manufacturer or supplier names and location (city and country) are given for special chemicals, software, equipment and other products.
  • Use single quotation marks in the text.
  • Numbered lists should be provided with Arabic numbers or lower case alphabet. Use a period after the number or letter (e.g. 1. or a.). Unnumbered lists should be provided with bullets.
  • Do not indent paragraphs. Use the tab function to place words at a certain position in the text, not spaces.



  • Footnotes should be avoided. If absolutely necessary, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers.



  • Appendices appear after the references.
  • They must contain a title and should be numbered when more than one.
  • They are referred in the text as Appendix A, B1, etc.



  • Avoid large tables. Tables should fit within the book size (maximum size per page 13x20 cm).
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numbers according to their sequence in the text.
  • Each table should have a title.
  • The text should include reference to all tables. Use Table followed by the number in the text, not an abbreviation.
  • Tables should be included in the text at the right place.
  • Tables should be clear without reading the text. Column headings should be brief and clear.
  • Any necessary explanations essential for understanding the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table. Use either numbers or letters for footnotes.


Formulae and Equations

  • Formulae should be typewritten, if possible.
  • Subscripts and superscripts should be clear.
  • Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.
  • Equations should be numbered in Arabic numbers serially at the right-hand side in parentheses.
  • When referring to equations in the text use Equation followed by the number, not Eq.



  • All illustrations should be black and white (coloured illustrations can not be accepted). Full colour illustrations will be converted to black & white.
  • Never submit illustrations as PowerPoint files, with the exceptions of cladograms or as PDF.
  • If photographs are necessary, submit original photographs with good contrast and intensity. Sharp and glossy copies are required. Reproductions of photographs already printed can not be accepted.
  • Resolution of photos and pictures should be at least 300 dpi. For line drawings use at least 900 dpi.
  • Illustrations should be numbered in Arabic numbers according to their sequence in the text. The text should include reference to all illustrations. Use Figure followed by the number in the text, not Fig.
  • Each illustration should have a title. Type this title in the text where the illustration should be placed.
  • Any necessary explanations essential for understanding the figure should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table. Use either numbers or letters for footnotes.



  • References concerning submitted, but not yet accepted manuscripts, unpublished data or ‘personal communications’ should not be cited in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text as (unpublished data) or (Initials + Family name, personal communications).
  • Work accepted for publication, but not yet published or first published online should be referred to as ‘in press’.
  • In the text, refer to the author’s name (without initials) and year of publication. Publications from the same authors in a single year should use a, b, etc.
  • If reference is made to a publication written by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be followed by ‘et al.’. Use ‘and’ and not ‘&’ for two authors.
  • References without an author should be referred as Anonymous.
  • References cited together in the text should be arranged alphabetically.
  • All publications cited in the text should be presented in an alphabetical list of references at the end of the manuscript (no numbering).
  • The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors’ names, and chronologically per author.
  • All authors of each article should be mentioned in the reference list. Institutional authors, like World Health Organisation (WHO) or United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), should be written out in the reference list.
  • Use full journal names for the references.
  • For internet resources use the direct link to the website of the paper if possible. If a paper is undated use the date (year) of access.


Use the following system for arranging your references:

For periodicals:

  • Shephard, G.S., Thiel, P.G., Stockenstrom, S. and Sydenham, E.W. (1996). Worldwide survey of fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products. Journal of AOAC International 79: 671-687.
  • Kamber, U., Gokce, H.I. and Elmali, M. (2007). Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in minced meat from Kars, Turkey. Food Additives & Contaminants (in press).
  • Anonymous (1999). Testing urged if feeding stunted crops to animals. New York Times August 21, 1999.


For books:

  • Van der Meulen, B. and Van der Velde, M. (2004). Food safety law in the European Union. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 270 pp.
  • Barug, D., Bhatnagar, D., Van Egmond, H.P., Van der Kamp, J.W., Van Ossenbruggen, W.A. and Visconti, A. (eds.) (2006). The mycotoxin factbook, food and feed topics. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 384 pp.


For multi-author books and conference proceedings:

  • Wu, F., Miller, J.D. and Casman, E.A. (2005). Bt corn and mycotoxin reduction: an economic perspective. In: Abbas, H.K. (ed.) Aflatoxin and food safety. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA, pp. 459-482.
  • Bacon, C.W. and Hinton, D.M. (2000). Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in corn by competitive exclusion using Bacillus mojavensis. In: USDA-ARS (ed.) Proceedings of the aflatoxin/fumonisin workshop. October 25–27, 2000. Yosemite, CA, USA, pp. 35–37.


For internet resources:

  • World Health Organisation (2004). Surveillance programme for control of foodborne infections and intoxications in Europe. Seventh report. The 1993–1998 Country reports. Available at: http://www.bgvv.de/internet/7th report/threp fr.htm. Accessed 7 July 2004.